Recently, incredible growth in communication technology has given rise to the hot topic, Big Data. Distributed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are the key provider of Big Data and can generate a significant amount of data. Various technical challenges exist in gathering the real time data. Energy efficient routing algorithms can overcome these challenges. The signal transmission features have been obtained by analyzing the experiments. According to these experiments, an energy efficient Big Data algorithm (BDEG) for WSN is proposed for real time data collection. Clustering communication is established on the basis of RSSI and residual energy of sensor nodes. Experimental simulations show that BDEG is stable in terms of network lifetime and data transmission time because of load balancing scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is verified through numerical results obtained in MATLAB.